Success in Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning: Indicators of Effectiveness-Figure 8. Functions of the mobile devices used in the practices (Note: Each case could involve the use of more than one function.)
Figure 8 captures the functions of mobile devices used in the practices. The results show that tailor-made applications for specific practices were most common (74%), followed by the use of a speaker (32%) and a camera (26%), where learners had to listen to audio materials using speakers or access online information by scanning QR-codes through cameras. In the various practices, other functions were also used, such as messaging (16%) for interacting with diverse parties and GPS (14%) for outdoor learning activities. For the practices using older models of mobile devices without cameras, tools such as an RFID reader (8%) were used for accessing information via communication tags.