Universal Concepts List of 17 Indo-European Languages

2018-08-02T20:43:21Z (GMT) by Holm, Hans J.J.G.

Universal Concepts List  (100-words, Swadesh 1971=final) with supposed Proto-Indo-European cognate stems, and their primary, “unmarked” translations in 17 representative old and recent IE languages
(This is the summary list of work in progress at detailed lists, and not thoroughly formatted)
Important note: This summary is exclusively aimed at glottochronological purposes. This, above all requires finding the most common, popular, everyday, “unmarked” translation for the given test meanings/concepts, which often will neither be the term scientists would choose, nor must be similar with the assumed meaning of the root. Only then the root has to be found, only in order to decide, which translations in the above sense are cognate or not. In most cases this aim does not necessarily require detailed notions of the grammar. Note further that pure loan pronunciations are glottochronologically not counted as replacements.