BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience-Success in Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning: Indicators of Effectiveness
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Mobile and ubiquitous learning has been a key focus in e-learning and practising broadly
worldwide. Among the research publications in this area, a majority of them focused on evaluating
the effectiveness of relevant practices and reported positive outcomes. To interpret such results, the
contexts in which mobile devices were used for learning and the indicators of effectiveness adopted
for evaluation are of prime importance. However, the use of those indicators in relation to the
contexts of practice has not been adequately studied. This paper presents a systematic review on the
use of various indicators of effectiveness for the practices of mobile and ubiquitous learning. The
review covers a total of 50 cases from relevant literature for the period 2007–2016. Regarding the
contexts of practice, the results show that 92% of the cases involved the use of mobile devices for
accessing online or offline information; 40% involved social interaction among peers or between
students and teachers; and 74% involved the apps or learning materials developed for specific
courses. The indicators of effectiveness revolved around 10 categories, namely learning
achievements, perceived usefulness, motivation, ease of use, satisfaction, learning attitude, cognitive
load, system usage, self-efficacy, and social engagement. Results also show that studies of mobile
and ubiquitous learning practices mostly focused on specific courses with less than 100 participants.
Based on the findings, a number of limitations in interpreting the success of mobile learning
practices are discussed.