Batteries and hydrogen for heavy transport applications in an industrial park

The possibility of switching from diesel fuel to hydrogen or batteries was studied for nineteen heavy-duty vehicles currently operating in Mo Industrial Park (MIP) located in Mo i Rana, Norway.
These vehicles consume 80% of the diesel fuel used for internal transport at MIP and contribute significantly to emissions.
The fuel consumption and operating time of each vehicle over three years was analysed to determine emissions, energy requirements and usage patterns.
These data were used as a basis to outline electrical drivelines for each type of vehicle (batteries, fuel cells and hydrogen tanks) and corresponding infrastructure (charging stations and electrolysis-based hydrogen refuelling station).
Other zero-emission alternatives, such as power delivery by catenary or induction coils embedded in the road, were considered impractical in the operating environment of MIP, and were hence not evaluated further. Biodiesel was not considered a viable solution, since MIP's main concern is local emissions because of the park's central location in the city of Mo i Rana.
Battery and hydrogen solutions were evaluated economically and compared to the current diesel fuelled internal combustion engines. Investments were accounted for as equivalent annual costs, due to the varying lifetimes for various technologies.
The battery solution is twice as expensive as diesel, mostly because of the cost of batteries themselves; power is only a minor part of the overall cost.
The hydrogen solution is 50% more expensive than diesel, with fuel cells and hydrogen station being the cost drivers. The economy of the hydrogen solution can be substantially improved if the oxygen from electrolysis can be valorised, either within MIP or through external sale to e.g. local fish farms.
A hybrid battery-fuel cell solution is likely to further improve the economy, but its applicability cannot be ascertained without more detailed study of the operation profile of relevant vehicles.